Makefiles for R/LaTeX projects

Updated: 21 November 2012

Make is a marvellous tool used by programmers to build software, but it can be used for much more than that. I use make whenever I have a large project involving R files and LaTeX files, which means I use it for almost all of the papers I write, and almost of the consulting reports I produce.

If you are using a Mac or Linux, you will already have make installed. If you are using Windows and have Rtools installed, then you will also have make. Otherwise, Windows users will need to install it. One implementation is in GnuWin.

A typical project of mine will include several R files containing code that fit some models, and generate tables and graphs. I try to set things up so I can re-create all the results by simply running the R files. Then I will have a LaTeX file which contains the paper or report I am writing. The tables and graphs produced by R are pulled in to the LaTeX file. Consequently, all I need to do is run all the R files, and then process the tex file, and the paper/report is generated.

Make relies on a Makefile to determine what it must do. Essentially, a Makefile specifies what files must be generated first, and how to generate them. So I need a Makefile that specifies that all the R files must be processed first, and then the LaTeX file.

The beauty of a Makefile is that it will only process the files that have been updated. It is smart enough not to re-run code if it has already been run. So if nothing has changed, running make does nothing. If only the tex file changes, running make will re-compile the tex document. If the R code has changed, running make will re-run the R code to generate the new tables and graphs, and then re-compile the tex document. All I do is type make and it figures out what is required.

A Makefile for LaTeX

It is easy to tell if the latex document needs compiling — make simply has to check that the pdf version of the document is older than the tex version of the document. Here is a simple Makefile that will just handle a LaTeX document.

TEXFILE= paper
$(TEXFILE).pdf: $(TEXFILE).tex
	latexmk -pdf -quiet $(TEXFILE)

The first line specifies the name of my file, in this case paper.tex. The second line specifies that the pdf file must be created from the tex file, and the last line explains how to do that. MikTeX users might prefer pdftexify instead of latexmk.

To use the above Makefile, copy the code into a plain text file called Makefile and store it in the same directory as your tex file. Change the first line so the name of your tex file (without the extension) is used. Then type make from a command prompt within the same directory as the tex file, and it should do whatever is necessary to convert your tex to pdf.

Of course, you wouldn’t normally bother with a Makefile if that is all it did. But throw in a whole lot of R files, and it becomes very worthwhile.

A Makefile for R and LaTeX

We need a way to allow make to be able to tell if an R file has been run. If the R files are run using


then the output is saved as file.Rout. Then make only has to check if file.Rout is older than file.R.

I also like to strip out all the white space from the pdf figures created in R before I put them in a LaTeX document. There is a nice command pdfcrop which does that. (You should already have it on a Mac or Linux, and also on Windows provided you are using MikTeX.) So I also want my Makefile to crop all images if they have not already been done. Once an image is cropped, an empty file of the form file.pdfcrop is created to indicate that file.pdf has already been cropped.

OK, now we are ready for my marvellous Makefile.

# Usually, only these lines need changing
TEXFILE= paper
FIGDIR= ./figs
# list R files
RFILES := $(wildcard $(RDIR)/*.R)
# pdf figures created by R
PDFFIGS := $(wildcard $(FIGDIR)/*.pdf)
# Indicator files to show R file has run
# Indicator files to show pdfcrop has run
CROP_FILES:= $(PDFFIGS:.pdf=.pdfcrop)
# May need to add something here if some R files depend on others.
$(RDIR)/%.Rout: $(RDIR)/%.R $(RDIR)/functions.R
$(FIGDIR)/%.pdfcrop: $(FIGDIR)/%.pdf
	pdfcrop $< $< && touch $@
# Compile main tex file and show errors
	latexmk -pdf -quiet $(TEXFILE)
# Run R files
# View main tex file
view: $(TEXFILE).pdf
	evince $(TEXFILE).pdf &
# Clean up stray files
	rm -fv $(OUT_FILES) 
	rm -fv $(CROP_FILES)
	rm -fv *.aux *.log *.toc *.blg *.bbl *.synctex.gz
	rm -fv *.out *.bcf *blx.bib *.run.xml
	rm -fv *.fdb_latexmk *.fls
	rm -fv $(TEXFILE).pdf
.PHONY: all clean

Download the file here. For most projects I copy this file into the main directory of my project, then all I have to do is modify the first few lines. RDIR specifies where the R files are kept and FIGDIR specifies where the figures are kept. Normally I keep these together, but sometimes they might be in separate directories.

Now make will do everything necessary — run the R files, crop the pdf graphics, and process the latex document. But it won’t do any steps that don’t need doing.

make R will only process the R files.

make view will run the pdf viewer, after updating the pdf file if necessary.

make clean will delete all the files generated by latex or by make, so that the entire process must be run again at the next make command.

Notice that my R files all depend on functions.R. This is a file that contains project-specific functions. If this file is updated, all the other R files will need updating also.

For many projects, some R files will depend on some others having already run. For example, read.R may read in the data and reformat it for analysis, while plot.R might produce some graphs assuming that read.R has already run. To ensure make knows about this dependency, we need to add a line

$(RDIR)/plot.Rout: $(RDIR)/plot.R $(RDIR)/functions.R $(RDIR)/read.R

This should be inserted where I have the comment # May need to add something here if some R files depend on others.

This Makefile works on Linux. Mac and Windows users will need to replace evince by whatever pdf viewer they prefer.

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  • Anonymous

    If I may suggest, I’d replace the tex invocation with “rubber –pdf” and rubber-info. That should cleanly take care of a lot of machinery.

    • Yihui Xie

      or “texi2pdf -c”

    • Rob J Hyndman

      Thanks. That’s much better. I’ve updated the file.

      • Michael Barton

        Rubber in no longer actively maintained as far as I am aware. I prefer to use latexmk –

        • Peter Baker

          I second that – even though I’ve just started using latexmk in my R makefiles, it seems more portable too. Nice summary Rob

  • MakeLover

    This makefile should be called GNUMakefile not “makefile” it relies on non-portable GNU extensions :(

  • szantaii
  • Simon

    I’m wondering why you have chosen to do it this way rather than using sweave or to use something like “projects” in RStudio?

    • Rob J Hyndman

      I choose not to use sweave or knitr because I like to keep my R code and my LaTeX file separate. This is partly because of co-authors. Often I will write a document with a co-author and it’s hard enough to get them to use LaTeX instead of Word, without trying to get them to use sweave. Also, I just think it is neater to separate out the R code into separate files rather than stuff everything into one bloated file.

      I haven’t tried RStudio projects yet. I’ll probably blog about them at some point if I like them.

  • Damjan Vukcevic

    You might want to use “R CMD BATCH –no-save” so that R doesn’t save the workspace after processing each script. Otherwise when subsequent scripts are executed they will load the previously saved workspace (including any variables, data and functions defined in them), which is probably not what you want.

    • Rob J Hyndman

      Actually, I do want to load the workspace. For example, one R file usually reads the data cleans it, and sets up the relevant objects in R. The next one will take those objects and do some statistical modelling. At the end of each R file I remove all objects that I don’t need any longer, keeping only the objects required for later use.

  • Vivi

    Your talk (R meetup) made me want to learn make, but in googling it I found out about Scons (Python based construct tool). Have you heard of it? Do you have any “feelings” about Scons vs Make?

    • Rob J Hyndman

      Yes, I’ve heard of Scons, but never used it. As make is available on all systems, and my needs are fairly simple, I figured it was better to stick with it.

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  • Jim

    I was able to make dependencies work with a slight modification. I had to change .R to .Rout. For example, I would change:

    (RDIR)/plot.Rout:(RDIR)/plot.R (RDIR)/read.R 	R CMD BATCH<


    (RDIR)/plot.Rout:(RDIR)/plot.R (RDIR)/read.Rout R CMD BATCH<

    I do get an error about a circular dependency, but at least it's working for me now. Before that change, all files were loading in alphabetical order and seemingly ignoring the dependencies.

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  • kuragari

    When I tried to use makefile on your way on an R file (using R CMD BATH myFile.R), I expected that calling make twice will run the .R file just one but, in fact, it calls the .R file twice. Do you know how to avoid this?

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